Sheikh Abdullah

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Sheikh Abdullah
Sheikh Abdullah on a 1988 stamp of India
3rd Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir
In office
25 February 1975 – 26 March 1977
In office
9 July 1977 – 8 September 1982
Succeeded byFarooq Abdullah
1st Elected Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir
In office
31 October 1951 – 9 August 1953
Preceded byHimself
Succeeded byBakshi Ghulam Mohammad
Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir Independent state
In office
5 March 1948 – 31 0ctober 1951
Preceded byMehr Chand Mahajan
Succeeded byHimself
President of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference
In office
October 1932 – August 1981
Personal details
Born5 December 1905[1]
Soura, Jammu and Kashmir, British India
Died8 September 1982 (aged 76)[1]
Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India [2]
Political partyJammu and Kashmir National Conference
SpouseBegum Akbar Jahan Abdullah
ChildrenFarooq Abdullah, Suraiya Abdullah Ali, Sheikh Mustafa Kamal, Khalida Shah
Alma materIslamia College Lahore
Aligarh Muslim University[3]

Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah (5 December 1905 – 8 September 1982) was an Indian politician who played a central role in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir.[4] Abdullah was the founding leader of the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference (later renamed Jammu and Kashmir National Conference) and the 1st elected Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir after its accession to India. He agitated against the rule of the Maharaja Hari Singh and urged self-rule for Kashmir.[5] He served as the 1st elected Prime Minister of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir[6] and Jammu & Kashmir as a State and was later jailed by Indian government unconstitutionally. He was dismissed from the position of Prime Ministership on 8 August 1953 and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad was appointed the new Prime Minister. The expressions 'Sadr-i-Riyasat' and 'Prime Minister' were replaced with the terms 'Governor' and 'Chief Minister' in 1965.[7] Sheikh Abdullah again became the Chief Minister of the state following the accord with Indira in 1974 and remained in the top slot till his death on 8 September 1982.[8]

Early life[edit]

Sheikh Abdullah was born on 5 December 1905 in Soura, a village on the outskirts of Srinagar, two weeks after the death of his father Sheikh Mohammed Ibrahim.[9][10] As claimed by him in his autobiography Aatish-e-Chinar,[11] his great- grandfather was a Hindu Brahmin of the Sapru clan, who converted to Islam after getting influenced by a Sufi preacher.[12][13] His father had been a middle class manufacturer and trader of Kashmiri shawls.[14] Abdullah was the youngest of six siblings.[9]

He was first admitted to a traditional school or maktab in 1909, when he was four, where he learnt the recitation of the Quran and some basic Persian texts like Gulistan of Sa'di, Bostan and Padshanama.[15] This was followed by a primary school run by the Anjuman Nusrat-ul-Islam, however the low standards of education resulted in Abdullah shifting to the district school at Visrarnaag. After five grades here he shifted to Government High School, Dilawar Bagh. He had to walk the distance of ten miles to school and back on foot, but in his own words, the joy of being allowed to obtain a school education made it seem a light work. He passed his matriculation (standard 12) examination from Punjab University in 1922.[16]

Higher studies[edit]

After matriculation he obtained admission in Shri Pratap (S. P.) College, a leading college of Kashmir.[9] His aim was to go into the medical profession at the time. However, circumstances not permitting, he decided to try to study general science at Prince of Wales College in Jammu. He was denied admission.[1][17] Then he took admission in Islamia College, Lahore and graduated from there. In 1930, he obtained an M.Sc. in Chemistry from Aligarh Muslim University.[1][9] The political exposure in Lahore and Aligarh would inspire his later life.[9]

Political activism[edit]

Kashmiri polymath and lawyer Molvi Abdullah. His lectures motivated Abdullah Sheikh and other educated Muslim youth to struggle for justice and fundamental rights

As a student at Aligarh Muslim University,[3] he came in contact with and was influenced by persons with liberal and progressive ideas. He became convinced that the feudal system was responsible for the miseries of the Kashmiris and like all progressive nations of the world Kashmir too should have a democratically elected government.

Reading Room Party[edit]

In the 1920s there were a couple of 'reading rooms' in Srinagar which consisted of the educated youth of the area and could only be formed after acquiring the permission of the government. Forming political associations the time was banned. In 1922, G. A. Ashai set up the Islamia School Old Boys Association (a reading room) with 20 members as part of the leadership, including Sheikh Abdullah. At this time Abdullah was still in college.[18]

Permission to open the Fateh Kadal Reading Room Party was given in 1930 and Sheikh Abdullah became the Secretary of the party. During Abdullah's time the reading room party was located in the house of Mufti Ziauddin. For Abdullah, "the establishment of reading room(s) was an excuse"; rather it was an opportunity to get together to discuss different issues.[19]

One of the first incidents which led Abdullah's Reading Room Party to gain wider recognition was after writing a letter to the government related to government recruitment policies. Subsequently they were called to present their views in front of the Regency Council[a] headed by G. E. C. Wakefield in October 1930. This was one of the first interactions of Sheikh Abdullah with the government and the favourable impression that Abdullah had left on Wakefield helped push his name into the public limelight.[20]

Muslim Conference[edit]

Sheikh Abdullah and his colleagues were greatly influenced by the lectures of a Kashmiri polymath and lawyer Molvi Abdullah.[21] Molvi Abdullah's son Molvi Abdul Rahim, Sheikh Abdullah and Ghulam Nabi Gilkar were the first three educated Kashmiri youth to be arrested during the public agitation of 1931.[22]

Sheikh Abdullah with other leaders of 1931 agitation. Sitting R to L: Sardar Gohar Rehman, Mistri Yaqoob Ali, Sheikh Abdullah, Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas. Standing R: Molvi Abdul Rahim, L:Ghulam Nabi Gilkar

Kashmir's first political party the Kashmir Muslim Conference with Sheikh Abdullah as President, Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas as general secretary, and Molvi Abdul Rahim as Secretary was formed on 16 October 1932. In his presidential address Sheikh Abdullah categorically stated that the Muslim Conference had come into existence to struggle for the rights of all oppressed sections of the society and not Muslims alone. It was not a communal party and would struggle for the rights of the oppressed, whether Hindu, Muslim or Sikh, with the same fervor. He reasserted that the struggle of Kashmiris was not a communal struggle.[23]

In March 1933 the Muslim Conference constituted a committee which included Molvi Abdullah and nine other members for the purpose of establishing contacts with non-Muslim parties and exploring the possibility of forming a joint organisation. Those nine members were Khwaja Saad-ud-din Shawl, Khwaja Hassan Shah Naqshbandi, Mirwaiz Kashmir, Molvi Ahmad-Ullah, Mirwaiz Hamadani, Agha Syed Hussain Shah Jalali, Mufti Sharif-ud-din, Molvi Atiq-Ullah and Haji Jafar Khan. According to Abdullah Sheikh this effort was not successful because of the unfavourable reception of the idea by the non-Muslim parties.[24] Sheikh Abdullah campaigned to change the name of the Muslim Conference to National Conference, under the influence of among others Jawaharlal Nehru. After a prolonged and vigorous campaign a special session of the Muslim Conference held in June 1939 voted to change the name of the party to National Conference. Of the 176 members attending the session, 172 members voted in favour of the resolution.[25] According to Sheikh Abdullah the support of Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas of Jammu was very important in motivating the members to vote for this change.[26]

Electoral politics[edit]

As a result of the 1931 agitation, the Maharajah appointed a Grievances Commission with an Englishman B.J. Glancy as President who submitted its report in March 1932.[27] Subsequently, a Constitutional Reforms Conference also presided over by B.J. Glancy recommended the setting up of an elected Legislative Assembly (Praja Sabha). Consequently, a Praja Sabha with 33 elected and 42 nominated members elected on the basis of separate electorates for Hindus and Muslims was established in 1934.[28] Women and illiterate men without sufficient property, or title, or annual income of less than Rupees four hundred did not have the right to vote. Roughly less than 10% (according to Justice Anand only 3%) of the population were enfranchised.[29]

Even after the formation of Praja Sabha in 1934 as recommended by the Commission real power continued to remain in the hands of the Maharajah.[30]

Seventeen years later in 1951, the government of Kashmir with Sheikh Abdullah as Prime Minister held elections to a Constituent Assembly on the basis of universal adult suffrage. Sheikh Abdullah's Government had been accused of rigging in these elections to the Constituent Assembly.[31]

Sheikh Abdullah with Nehru and Badshah Khan (centre) at Shalimar Garden in 1945

Sheikh Abdullah was introduced to Jawaharlal Nehru in 1937 and as he too was a leader of the Indian National Congress was demanding similar rights for people of British India[32] and had formed The All India States Peoples Conference[33] for supporting the people of Princely States in their struggle for a representative government the two became friends and political allies.

National Conference[edit]

He introduced a resolution in the working committee of the Muslim Conference for changing its name to National Conference on 24 June 1938 to allow people from all communities to join the struggle against the autocratic rule of the Maharaja.[34] Meanwhile, he along with his liberal progressive friends, many of whom were not Muslim like Kashyap Bandhu, Jia Lal Kilam, Pandit Sudama Sidha, Prem Nath Bazaz and Sardar Budh Singh drafted the National Demands[35] the forerunner of the famous Naya Kashmir (New Kashmir) Manifesto (which was a charter of demands for granting a democratic constitution committed to the welfare of the common people of Kashmir).[36]

He presented these demands to the Maharajah in a speech on 28 August 1938.[37] The Maharajah was not willing to accept these demands and so he along with many of his companions was arrested for defying prohibitory orders and sentenced to six months imprisonment and a fine. His arrest provoked a public agitation in which volunteers called Dictators (so called because they had the authority to defy laws that was forbidden for normal law-abiding party members) courted arrest. This agitation was called off on the appeal of Mohandas K. Gandhi. He was released after serving his sentence on 24 February 1939 and accorded a grand reception by the people of Srinagar on his return. Speeches were made at the reception stressing the importance of unity among Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs.[38] Subsequently the resolution for changing the name of Muslim Conference to National Conference was ratified with an overwhelming majority by the General Council of the Muslim Conference on 11 June 1939 and from that date Muslim Conference became National Conference.[39]

Quit Kashmir agitation[edit]

In May 1946 Sheikh Abdullah launched the Quit Kashmir agitation against Maharajah Hari Singh and was arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment but was released only sixteen months later on 29 September 1947.[40]

Head of Government[edit]

Head of emergency administration[edit]

Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah (right), chosen to head interim government in Kashmir, confers with Sardar Patel, deputy premier of India

Maharaja Hari Singh appealed to Lord Mountbatten, the Governor-General of India for Indian military aid. In his accession offer dated 26 October 1947 which accompanied The Instrument of Accession duly signed by him on 26 October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh wrote "I may also inform your Excellency's Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim Government and ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister."[41][42]

Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession after a meeting of the Defence Committee on 26 October 1947. In accepting the accession unconditionally he wrote, "I do hereby accept this Instrument of Accession. Dated this twenty seventh day of October, nineteen hundred and forty seven."[43] In the covering letter to Hari Singh, he wrote "In consistence with their policy that in the case of any State where the issue of accession has been the subject of dispute, the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the State, it is my Government's wish that, as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and its soil cleared of the invader, the question of the State's accession should be settled by a reference to the people."[44] Also in his letter to the Maharaja, Lord Mountbatten wrote "My Government and I note with satisfaction that your Highness has decided to invite Sheikh Abdullah to form an Interim Government to work with your Prime Minister." The support of Mahatma Gandhi and Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a key factor in getting Sheikh Abdullah appointed as Head of the emergency administration by the Maharaja.[45]

As a consequence, Sheikh Abdullah was appointed head of an emergency administration by an order issued by the Maharaja which was undated except for the mention of October 1947 in place of the date. He took charge as Head of the Emergency Administration on 30 October 1947.[46]

He raised a force of local Kashmiri volunteers to patrol Srinagar and take control of administration after the flight of the Maharaja along with his family and Prime Minister Meher Chand Mahajan to Jammu even before the Indian troops had landed. This group of volunteers would serve as the nucleus for the subsequent formation of Jammu and Kashmir Militia.[47] This, Sheikh Abdullah hoped, would take over the defence of Kashmir after the Indian army was withdrawn. This was articulated in his letter to Sardar Patel dated 7 October 1948 in which he wrote, "With the taking over of the State forces by the Indian Government, it was agreed that steps would be taken to reorganise and rebuild our army so that when the present emergency is over and the Indian forces are withdrawn the State will be left with a proper organised army of its own to fall back upon."[48] (Sheikh Abdullah has alleged that most of the Muslim soldiers of the Militia were either discharged or imprisoned before his arrest in 1953.[49] The Militia (dubbed as Dagan Brigade) was converted from a State Militia to a regular unit of the Indian Army on 2 December 1972 and redesignated the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry).[50]

Sheikh Abdullah spoke at the UN Security Council on 5 February 1948 thus:

While the [tribal] raiders came to our land, massacred thousands of people — mostly Hindus and Sikhs, but Muslims too — abducted thousands of girls, Hindu, Sikhs and Muslims alike, looted our property and almost reached the gates of our summer capital, Srinagar, the result was that the civil, military and police administration failed. The Maharaja, in the dead of the night, left the capital along with his courtiers, and the result was absolute panic. There was no one to take over control. In that hour of crisis, the National Conference came forward with 10,000 volunteers and took over the administration of [Kashmir].[51]

Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Return to activism[edit]

Arrest and release[edit]

On 8 August 1953 he was dismissed as Prime Minister by the then Sadr-i-Riyasat (Constitutional Head of State) Dr. Karan Singh, son of the erstwhile Maharajah Hari Singh, on the charge that he had lost the confidence of his cabinet (not the house).[52] He was denied the opportunity to prove his majority on the floor of the house[53] and his dissident cabinet minister Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed was appointed as Prime Minister.[54] Sheikh Abdullah was immediately arrested and later jailed for eleven years, accused of conspiracy against the State in the infamous "Kashmir Conspiracy Case".[55]

According to Sheikh Abdullah his dismissal and arrest were engineered by the central government headed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.[56] He has quoted B.N. Mullicks' statements in his book "My Years with Nehru"[57] in support of his statement.[56] A.G. Noorani writing in Frontline supports this view, as according to him Nehru himself ordered the arrest.[58] On 8 April 1964, the State Government dropped all charges in the so-called "Kashmir Conspiracy Case."[59] Sheikh Abdullah was released and returned to Srinagar where he was accorded an unprecedented welcome by the people of the valley."[60]

After his release he was reconciled with Nehru. Nehru requested Sheikh Abdullah to act as a bridge between India and Pakistan and make President Ayub to agree to come to New Delhi for talks for a final solution of the Kashmir problem. President Ayub Khan also sent telegrams to Nehru and Sheikh Abdullah with the message that as Pakistan too was a party to the Kashmir dispute any resolution of the conflict without its participation would not be acceptable to Pakistan. This paved the way for Sheikh Abdullah's visit to Pakistan to help broker a solution to the Kashmir problem.[61]

Sheikh Abdullah went to Pakistan in spring of 1964. President Ayub Khan of Pakistan held extensive talks with him to explore various avenues for solving the Kashmir problem and agreed to come to Delhi in mid June for talks with Nehru as suggested by him. Even the date of his proposed visit was fixed and communicated to New Delhi.[62] However, before Ayub Khan could make his visit, Nehru died on 27 May 1964. The Sheikh was en route to Muzaffarabad in Pakistan-administered Kashmir when he received the news. He addressed a public rally at Muzaffarabad in Pakistan-administered Kashmir and returned to Delhi.[63] On his suggestion, President Ayub Khan sent a high level Pakistani delegation led by his Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto along with him to take part in the last rites of Jawaharlal Nehru.[64]

After Nehru's death in 1964, Sheikh Abdullah was again interned from 1965 to 1968. The internment was ordered by Lal Bahadur Shastri and continued by Indira Gandhi. The Plebiscite Front was also banned. This was allegedly done to prevent him and the Plebiscite Front which was supported by him from taking part in elections in Kashmir.[65] Again, he was exiled from Kashmir in 1971-72 for 18 months, during which period the Indo-Pak war of 1971 came to be waged.

After Indo-Pakistan war and creation of Bangladesh[edit]

Sheikh Abdullah addressing a mammoth gathering at Lal Chowk Srinagar in 1975

In 1971, the Bangladesh Liberation War broke out in erstwhile East Pakistan between Pakistan and Bangladesh joined later by India, and subsequently war broke out on the western border of India between India and Pakistan, both of which culminated in the creation of Bangladesh. Sheikh Abdullah watching the alarming turn of events in the subcontinent realised that for the survival of this region there was an urgent need to stop pursuing confrontational politics and promoting solution of issues by a process of reconciliation and dialogue rather than confrontation. Critics of Sheikh hold the view that he gave up the cherished goal of plebiscite for gaining Chief Minister's chair. He started talks with the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for normalising the situation in the region and came to an accord called 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord with Indira Gandhi, then India's Prime Minister, by giving up the demand for a plebiscite in lieu of the people being given the right to self-rule by a democratically elected Government (as envisaged under article 370 of the Constitution of India) rather than the puppet government which till then ruled the State.[66]

Return to power[edit]

Sheikh Abdullah's funeral procession

He assumed the position of Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. The Central Government and the ruling Congress Party withdrew its support so that the State Assembly had to be dissolved and mid term elections called.[67]

The National Conference won an overwhelming majority in the subsequent elections and re-elected Sheikh Abdullah as Chief Minister.[68] He remained as Chief Minister till his death in 1982.

Abdullah, described as a six feet four inches (1.93 m)[69][70][71] to six feet six inches (1.98 m) tall man,[72] was fluent in both Kashmiri and Urdu. His biography in Urdu entitled Atish-e-Chinar was written by the noted Kashmiri author M.Y. Taing and published after Sheikh Abdullah's death. It is often referred to as his autobiography as Taing claimed that he only acted as an amanuensis.[73] It is based on extensive interviews that Taing had with Sheikh Abdullah and provides valuable information on Sheikh Abdullah's family background, early life, ringside glimpses of happenings in Kashmir at a crucial juncture in its history, and his viewpoint about the political events in Kashmir in which he himself played a central role.[74]

After his death his eldest son Dr. Farooq Abdullah was elected as the Chief Minister of the State.

Personal life[edit]

In 1933 he married Akbar Jahan, the daughter of Michael Harry Nedou, of Slovak and British descent, and his Muslim Gujjar wife Mirjan.[75] Michael Harry Nedou was himself the proprietor of hotels at the tourist resort of Gulmarg,[76] and Srinagar.[75] The writer Tariq Ali claims that Abdullah was Akbar Jehan's second husband.[b]


Pakistani view[edit]

The government of Pakistan in 1947 viewed Abdullah and his party as agents of Nehru and did not recognise his leadership of Kashmir.[79] He spoke against Pakistani government in United Nations by comparing it with Hitler's rule, and he also endorsed Indian stand on Jammu and Kashmir. However, there was a change in Pakistan's viewpoint with the passage of time. When he visited Pakistan in 1964 he was awarded a tumultuous welcome by the people of Pakistan. Among the persons who received him was Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas his once colleague and later political enemy who earlier in his book Kashmakash had denounced Sheikh Abdullah as a turncoat and traitor. Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas embraced him and in his speech described him as one of the greatest leaders of the subcontinent and a great benefactor of the Muslims of the subcontinent.[80][81] President Ayub Khan and his then Foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto discussed the Kashmir problem with him. The government of Pakistan treated him as a state guest.[82] Sheikh Abdullah had the rare distinction of having poems in his praise written by three major Pakistani Urdu poets namely Hafeez Jullundhri, Josh and Faiz Ahmed Faiz who admired his lifelong struggle against injustice and for democratic rights of the common man.[83]


Along with Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed, Sheikh Abdullah has been called the "Architect of Modern Kashmir".[84]

The birth anniversary of Abdullah was a public holiday in the state until 2019.[85] "Sher-e-Kashmir" has been dropped from a number of places, including a conference hall, the state award and police medal.[86][87] There are a number of institutions and buildings named after him, such as the Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology in Kashmir and Jammu, the Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences and the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium. A name change for the stadium has also been aired however not implemented.[88][89][90]

In popular culture[edit]

The Flame of the Chinar, a 1998 Indian feature documentary film directed by Zul Vellani covers his life and works. It was produced by the Government of India's Film Division.[91] Anang Desai portrayed Abdullah in the 2013 Indian docudrama television series Pradhanmantri, which covered the tenures of Indian PMs.[92]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Regency Council represented the state in the absence of the king.
  2. ^ Ali claims she was married in 1928 to an Arab Karam Shah who disappeared after a Calcutta newspaper Liberty reported that he was actually T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia),[77] a British Intelligence officer. He claims that Akbar Jehan was divorced by her first husband in 1929.[78]


  1. ^ a b c d Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) p 22-23
  2. ^ "MOHAMMAD ABDULLAH DIES; LED INDIA'S STATE OF KASHMIR (Published 1982)". The New York Times. 9 September 1982.
  3. ^ a b Tej K. Tikoo (19 July 2012). Kashmir: Its Aborigines and Their Exodus. Lancer Publishers. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-1-935501-34-3. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  4. ^ "Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah" (PDF). Eminent Parliamentarians Monograph Series. Lok Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi. 1990. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ Guha, Ramachandra. "Opening a window in Kashmir." Economic and Political Weekly (2004): 3905-3913.
  6. ^ Lamb, Alastair. The Myth of Indian Claim to Jammu and Kashmir: A Reappraisal. World Kashmir Freedom Movement.
  7. ^ Noorani, A.G. (7 July 2011). Article 370 : a constitutional history of Jammu and Kashmir (1. publ. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198074083.
  8. ^ Rakesh Ankit, "Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah of Kashmir, 1965–1975: From Externment to Enthronement." Studies in Indian Politics 6.1 (2018): 88-102 online.
  9. ^ a b c d e Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah: A Profile, Lok Sabha Secretariat (1990), p. 1.
  10. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 4.
  11. ^ Mohammad Abdullah (Sheikh) (1993). Flames of the Chinar: An Autobiography. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-85318-2.
  12. ^ Syed Taffazull Hussain (13 July 2019). Sheikh Abdullah-A Biography: The Crucial Period 1905-1939. 2019 Edition. Syed Taffazull Hussain. ISBN 978-1-60481-603-7.
  13. ^ Ajit Bhattacharjea (2008). Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah: Tragic Hero of Kashmir. Lotus collection/Roli Books. ISBN 9788174366719.
  14. ^ Kumar, Radha (2018). Paradise at War: A Political History of Kashmir. New Delhi: Aleph. p. 23. ISBN 9789388292122.
  15. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 5.
  16. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 1–14.
  17. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 8–9.
  18. ^ Hussain, Syed Taffazull (13 July 2019). "6". Sheikh Abdullah-A Biography: The Crucial Period 1905-1939. 2019 Edition. Syed Taffazull Hussain. ISBN 978-1-60481-603-7.
  19. ^ Para, Altaf Hussain (7 December 2018). "3". The Making of Modern Kashmir: Sheikh Abdullah and the Politics of the State. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-429-65734-4.
  20. ^ Ganai, Muhammad Yousuf. Emergence and Role of Muslim Conference in Kashmir (1932-1939) (PDF). Department of History, University of Kashmir. p. 147.
  21. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 67.
  22. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 94.
  23. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 156–160.
  24. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 163.
  25. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 239.
  26. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 238.
  27. ^ Justice A.S. Anand (2006), p28
  28. ^ Regulation No1. of Samvat1991 (22 April 1934)
  29. ^ Justice A.S. Anand (2006), p30
  30. ^ Justice A.S. Anand (2006), p36
  31. ^ APHC: White Paper on Elections In Kashmir
  32. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 226–227.
  33. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 228.
  34. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 232.
  35. ^ Rasheed Taseer (1973) vol2, p29
  36. ^ Rasheed Taseer (1973) vol2, p314-383
  37. ^ Rasheed Taseer (1973) vol2, p25
  38. ^ Rasheed Taseer (1973) vol2, p25-40
  39. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 237.
  40. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 327–389.
  41. ^ Maharaja Hari Singh's letter requesting Indian Assistance against tribal raids. (26 October 1947). Retrieved on 7 December 2018.
  42. ^ Accession Of Jammu And Kashmir State To India. Text Of Letter Dated 26 October 1947 From Hari Singh, The Maharaja Of Jammu & Kashmir to Lord Mountbatten, The then Governor General of India.
  43. ^ Acceptance Of Accession By The Governor General Of India Archived 17 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine. (26 October 1947). Retrieved on 7 December 2018.
  44. ^ Rediff On The NeT Special: The Real Kashmir Story. (2 June 1999). Retrieved on 7 December 2018.
  45. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 462–464.
  46. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 431.
  47. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 413–414.
  48. ^ Sandeep Bamzai (2006), p73
  49. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 567.
  50. ^ PIB Press release Press Information Bureau Govt of India 16 September 2004
  51. ^ "Excerpts of Sheikh Abdullah's February 5, 1948, speech in the UN Security Council". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  52. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 593–594.
  53. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 607.
  54. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 600.
  55. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 711–717.
  56. ^ a b Abdullah & Taing (1985, pp. 566–567)
  57. ^ B.N. Mullick (1972)
  58. ^ A.G. Noorani (2006)
  59. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 752.
  60. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 755–757.
  61. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 774–778.
  62. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 782.
  63. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 786.
  64. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 787.
  65. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 817–825.
  66. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 827–838.
  67. ^ Noorani, A. G. (16 September 2000), "Article370: Law and Politics", Frontline, vol. 17, no. 19
  68. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 860–882.
  69. ^ C. Bilqees Taseer, The Kashmir of Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah, p. 330
  70. ^ Korbel 1966, p. 17.
  71. ^ Russel Brines, The Indo-Pakistani conflict, p. 67
  72. ^ Hugh Tinker, "Accursed Paradise" in New Society, Volume 6, p.25
  73. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, Preface.
  74. ^ Hussain 2013, p. 2.
  75. ^ a b Whitehead, Andrew (6 March 2014). "Srinagar: Nedou's reborn?". Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  76. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 193.
  77. ^ Mubashhir Hassan (2008)
  78. ^ Tariq Ali (2003), p 230
  79. ^ Sandeep Bamzai (2006), p242.
  80. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 783.
  81. ^ The WEEKLY "AAINA" 15 July 1970, p19
  82. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, p. 779.
  83. ^ Abdullah & Taing 1985, pp. 265–268.
  84. ^ Para, Altaf Hussain (14 March 2015). "Sheikh Abdullah: The Architect of Modern Kashmir". Greater Kashmir. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  85. ^ Ahmad, Mudasir (28 December 2019). "J&K Drops Martyr's Day, Sheikh Abdullah Birth Anniversary From Public Holidays List". The Wire. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  86. ^ "J&K: Leaders Criticise Move to Drop 'Sher-e-Kashmir' from Conference Centre's Name". The Wire. 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  87. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir drops 'Sher-e-Kashmir' from name of police medals". Hindustan Times. Press Trust of India. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  88. ^ Kathju, Junaid (4 November 2019). "Sher-i-Kashmir Cricket Stadium Likely to be Renamed after Sardar Patel". The Wire. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  89. ^ "Independence Day: 100-ft Tricolour hoisted in Srinagar; no internet suspension for first time". The New Indian Express. PTI. 15 August 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
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  • A.G. Noorani (2000), "Article370: Law and Politics". Frontline Volume 17 – Issue 19, 16–29 September, (Discusses illegality of Central Govt and Parliament's Actions in amending Article 370 without concurrence of Constituent Assembly of Kashmir)
  • A.G. Noorani (2006), "Nehru's legacy in foreign affairs". Frontline Volume 23 – Issue 15 :: 29 July 11 August 2006 (Discusses Nehru's role in arrest of Sheikh Abdullah and erosion of Article 370)
  • B.N. Mullick (1972): My Years with Nehru (Provides evidence of Nehru's role in dismissal and arrest of Sheikh Abdullah. B.N. Mullick was head of Indian Intelligence Bureau at the time of his arrest)
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdullah, Sheikh Muhammad". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  • Justice A.S. Anand (2006) The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. Universal Law Publishing Co. ISBN 81-7534-520-9
  • Mubashir Hassan (18 July 2008), "The Nedous and Lawrence of Arabia", The Nation (Pakistan), archived from the original on 9 January 2009, retrieved 22 July 2008
  • Rasheed Taseer (1973): Tareekh e Hurriyat e Kashmir (URDU). Muhafiz Publications Srinagar Volume 2 gives an account of events in Kashmir from 1932 to 1946 as seen by a local journalist.
  • Sandeep Bamzai (2006): Bonfire of Kashmiryat Rupa & Co. New Delhi. ISBN 81-291-1060-1
  • Tariq Ali (2003): The Clash of Fundamentalism. Verso Books. London. ISBN 978 1 85984 457 1
  • Syed Taffazull Hussain (2009): Sheikh Abdullah – A biography:The Crucial Period 1905–1939. Wordclay. Indianapolis.IN. ISBN 978-1-60481-309-8 (Annotated 2015 edition with 38 References and 650 footnotes is available at http:// has chapters on The Kashmir Committee, Jinnah's first visit to Kashmir, and describes errors of omission and commission in Atish e Chinar all for the first time.)
  • APHC: White Paper On Elections in Kashmir (undated): (retrieved on 5 November 2008)
  • Hussain Haqqani (2005): Pakistan Between Mosque and Military. Vanguard Books. Lahore. ISBN 969-402-498-6
  • Baba Pyare Lal Bedi, Freda Marie (Houlston) Bedi (1949): Sheikh Abdullah: his life and ideals
  • Ravinderjit Kaur (1998): "Political Awakening In Kashmir. South Asia Books. ISBN 978-8-17024-709-8
  • Brenda M King (2005): "Silk and empire" Manchester University Press ISBN 978-07190-6701-3. Describes Sir Thomas Wardle's role in establishing modern filatures in Kashmir and his dream of making Kashmir a competitor for China and Japan in the international silk market.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir
Succeeded by